Data model

<database> The product of the database design process which aims to identify and organize the required data logically and physically.

A data model says what information is to be contained in a database, how the information will be used, and how the items in the database will be related to each other.

For example, a data model might specify that a customer is represented by a customer name and credit card number and a product as a product code and price, and that there is a one-to-many relation between a customer and a product.

It can be difficult to change a database layout once code has been written and data inserted.

A well thought-out data model reduces the need for such changes.

Data modelling enhances application maintainability and future systems may re-use parts of existing models, which should lower development costs.

A data modelling language is a mathematical formalism with a notation for describing data structures and a set of operations used to manipulate and validate that data.

One of the most widely used methods for developing data models is the entity-relationship model.

The relational model is the most widely used type of data model.

Another example is NIAM.

["Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems", J.D. Ullman, Volume I, Computer Science Press, 1988, p. 32].

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