<grammar> Strictly, a variable
used in metasyntax
, but often used for any name used in examples and understood to stand for whatever thing is under discussion, or any random member of a class of things under discussion.
The word foo
is the canonical
To avoid confusion, hackers never (well, hardly ever) use "foo" or other words like it as permanent names for anything.
In filenames, a common convention is that any filename beginning with a metasyntactic-variable name is a scratch
file that may be deleted at any time.
To some extent, the list of one's preferred metasyntactic variables is a cultural signature.
They occur both in series (used for related groups of variables or objects) and as singletons.
Here are a few common signatures:
, quuux, quuuux...: MIT/Stanford usage, now found everywhere.
At MIT (but not at Stanford), baz
dropped out of use for a while in the 1970s and '80s.
A common recent mutation of this sequence inserts qux
bazola, ztesch: Stanford (from mid-'70s on).
, thud, grunt: This series was popular at CMU. Other CMU-associated variables include ack, barf, foo, and gorp
, fum: This series is reported to be common at Xerox PARC
: See the entry for fred
These tend to be Britishisms.
, titi, tata, tutu: Standard series of metasyntactic variables among francophones.
: Popular at Rutgers University and among GOSMACS
zxc, spqr, wombat
: Cambridge University (England).
shme: Berkeley, GeoWorks, Ingres.
Pronounced /shme/ with a short /e/.
, zot: Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
blarg, wibble: New Zealand
Of all these, only "foo" and "bar" are universal (and baz
The compounds foobar
and "foobaz" also enjoy very wide currency.
Some jargon terms are also used as metasyntactic names; barf
, for example.
See also Commonwealth Hackish
for discussion of numerous metasyntactic variables found in Great Britain and the Commonwealth.