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Metric space

<mathematics> A set of points together with a function, d, called a metric function or distance function.

The function assigns a positive real number to each pair of points, called the distance between them, such that:

1. For any point x, d(x,x)=0;

2. For any two distinct points x and y, d(x,y)>0;

3. For any two points x and y, not necessarily distinct,

d(x,y) = d(y,x).

4. For any three points x, y, and z, that are not necessarily distinct,

d(x,z) <= d(x,y) + d(y,z).

The distance from x to z does not exceed the sum of the distances from x to y and from y to z.

The sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle is equal to or exceeds the length of the third side.

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