<mathematics> Base 8.
A number representation using the digits 0-7 only, with the right-most digit counting ones, the next counting multiples of 8, then 8^2 = 64, etc.
For example, octal 177 is digital 127:
8^2 = 64
1* 64 = 64 7
8 = 56 7
7 --- 127
Octal system used to be widespread back when many computers used 6-bit bytes, as a 6-bit byte can be conveniently written as a two-digit octal number.
Since nowadays a byte is almost always 8-bit long the octal system lost most of its appeal to the hexadecimal system.
For a brief discussion on the word `octal' see hexadecimal.
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