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Ethernet Standard Encapsulation

In order to transport IP packets across an Ethernet, two issues must be addressed. First, how should an IP packet be converted to an Ethernet packet? Second, how should an IP address be converted to an Ethernet address?

How to convert an IP packet to an Ethernet packet depends in large part on what type of Ethernet is used. Two methods are most common:

Using repeaters, bridges, and routers, it's fairly simple to to interoperate Ethernet implementations to the point of sharing DIX and IEEE 802 frames on the same cable. However, bizarre interactions are possible, particularly with regard to the slight MTU size variances. If a TCP host transmitting a stream of maximally sized RFC 894 (DIX) packets, they will require IP fragmentation before transport using RFC 1042 (IEEE 802) encapsulation.

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