RFC 1661 (rfc1661) - Page 1 of 52


The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)



Alternative Format: Original Text Document

Next >


Network Working Group                                 W. Simpson, Editor
Request for Comments: 1661                                    Daydreamer
STD: 51                                                        July 1994
Obsoletes: 1548
Category: Standards Track


                   The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)



Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


Abstract

   The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard method for
   transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links.  PPP
   is comprised of three main components:

      1. A method for encapsulating multi-protocol datagrams.

      2. A Link Control Protocol (LCP) for establishing, configuring,
         and testing the data-link connection.

      3. A family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) for establishing
         and configuring different network-layer protocols.

   This document defines the PPP organization and methodology, and the
   PPP encapsulation, together with an extensible option negotiation
   mechanism which is able to negotiate a rich assortment of
   configuration parameters and provides additional management
   functions.  The PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP) is described in terms
   of this mechanism.


Table of Contents


     1.     Introduction ..........................................    1
        1.1       Specification of Requirements ...................    2
        1.2       Terminology .....................................    3

     2.     PPP Encapsulation .....................................    4


Simpson                                                         [Page i]
RFC 1661                Point-to-Point Protocol                July 1994


     3.     PPP Link Operation ....................................    6
        3.1       Overview ........................................    6
        3.2       Phase Diagram ...................................    6
        3.3       Link Dead (physical-layer not ready) ............    7
        3.4       Link Establishment Phase ........................    7
        3.5       Authentication Phase ............................    8
        3.6       Network-Layer Protocol Phase ....................    8
        3.7       Link Termination Phase ..........................    9

     4.     The Option Negotiation Automaton ......................   11
        4.1       State Transition Table ..........................   12
        4.2       States ..........................................   14
        4.3       Events ..........................................   16
        4.4       Actions .........................................   21
        4.5       Loop Avoidance ..................................   23
        4.6       Counters and Timers .............................   24

     5.     LCP Packet Formats ....................................   26
        5.1       Configure-Request ...............................   28
        5.2       Configure-Ack ...................................   29
        5.3       Configure-Nak ...................................   30
        5.4       Configure-Reject ................................   31
        5.5       Terminate-Request and Terminate-Ack .............   33
        5.6       Code-Reject .....................................   34
        5.7       Protocol-Reject .................................   35
        5.8       Echo-Request and Echo-Reply .....................   36
        5.9       Discard-Request .................................   37

     6.     LCP Configuration Options .............................   39
        6.1       Maximum-Receive-Unit (MRU) ......................   41
        6.2       Authentication-Protocol .........................   42
        6.3       Quality-Protocol ................................   43
        6.4       Magic-Number ....................................   45
        6.5       Protocol-Field-Compression (PFC) ................   48
        6.6       Address-and-Control-Field-Compression (ACFC)

     SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS ......................................   51
     REFERENCES ...................................................   51
     ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................   51
     CHAIR'S ADDRESS ..............................................   52
     EDITOR'S ADDRESS .............................................   52










Simpson                                                        [Page ii]
RFC 1661                Point-to-Point Protocol                July 1994


1.  Introduction

   The Point-to-Point Protocol is designed for simple links which
   transport packets between two peers.  These links provide full-duplex
   simultaneous bi-directional operation, and are assumed to deliver
   packets in order.  It is intended that PPP provide a common solution
   for easy connection of a wide variety of hosts, bridges and routers
   [1].

   Encapsulation

      The PPP encapsulation provides for multiplexing of different
      network-layer protocols simultaneously over the same link.  The
      PPP encapsulation has been carefully designed to retain
      compatibility with most commonly used supporting hardware.

      Only 8 additional octets are necessary to form the encapsulation
      when used within the default HDLC-like framing.  In environments
      where bandwidth is at a premium, the encapsulation and framing may
      be shortened to 2 or 4 octets.

      To support high speed implementations, the default encapsulation
      uses only simple fields, only one of which needs to be examined
      for demultiplexing.  The default header and information fields
      fall on 32-bit boundaries, and the trailer may be padded to an
      arbitrary boundary.

   Link Control Protocol

      In order to be sufficiently versatile to be portable to a wide
      variety of environments, PPP provides a Link Control Protocol
      (LCP).  The LCP is used to automatically agree upon the
      encapsulation format options, handle varying limits on sizes of
      packets, detect a looped-back link and other common
      misconfiguration errors, and terminate the link.  Other optional
      facilities provided are authentication of the identity of its peer
      on the link, and determination when a link is functioning properly
      and when it is failing.

   Network Control Protocols

      Point-to-Point links tend to exacerbate many problems with the
      current family of network protocols.  For instance, assignment and
      management of IP addresses, which is a problem even in LAN
      environments, is especially difficult over circuit-switched
      point-to-point links (such as dial-up modem servers).  These
      problems are handled by a family of Network Control Protocols
      (NCPs), which each manage the specific needs required by their



Simpson


Next >


Web Standards & Support:

Link to and support eLook.org Powered by LoadedWeb Web Hosting
Valid XHTML 1.0! Valid CSS! eLook.org FireFox Extensions